The Qur’an gives information about the Madyan in the coordinates of the Madyan region, by mentioning the word Madyan and the name of its Messenger, so that it is not open to interpretation. 29: 36 and Madyan sent their brother Shu’ayb. Then he said to them: “O my people! Be a servant of God and wish for the last day. Do not resent them as mischief-makers on Earth .”
Different opinions are put forward about the origin of the word Madyan. It is also stated that Shu’ayb and the people he was sent to are Arabic, hence the name of these people, Madyan, is an Arabic word derived from the root of religion in the meaning of “to reside” or “to rule” (Lisanü’l-ʿArab, “mdn” md.; Mevhub b. Ahmed Al-Jawalikī, P. 326; Jeffery, P. 260; M. Beyyumi Mehran, P. 193).
Madyan Region- The Prophet Shu’ayb
29/AL-‘ANKABUT-36 Ve ilâ medyene ehâhum şuayben fe kâle yâ kavmi’ budûllâhe vercûl yevmel âhıra ve lâ ta’sev fîl ardı mufsidîn.
And to Madyan [We sent] their brother Shu’ayb, and he said, “O my people, worship Allah and expect the Last Day and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption.”
According to the Bible, Madyan (Midyan / Midian in Hebrew, Madian / Madiam in the Greek translation of the Torah) is primarily an individual name. The fourth son of Abraham’s third wife, Keturah (Tekvin, 25/2; I. Dates, 1/32), is also the name of the people and their inhabited region, descended from this person and called the Midyanis (Midyanim, Midianites). In The Torah, it has also been suggested that Medan, the name of Abraham and Keturah’s third children, is the different written form of Madyan and that the two are the same person (DB, IV/I, s. 531; IDB, III, 318); Medan is also the cross name in Arabic (Lisânü’l-ʿArab, “mdn” md.; Cevâd Ali, VI, 282). It is also said that the word derives from the name of a place or tribe in Egypt (Reşîd Sâlim en-Nâdûrî, II, 71).
According to the Old Treaty, Madyan was dominated by sedentary and nomadic tribes who held trade routes with Egypt and Ken’an (numbers, 31/10). These tribes operated mainly in the fields of trade, livestock and mining. The Midyani were also familiar with the trade route from South to North. The people of Madyan’s trade occupation is also understood from the admonitions in the Qur’an that the Prophet Shu’ayb gave them.
There is no mention of a city called Madyan in the Old Treaty. In the same region, Ptoleme mentions a city called Modiana on the beach and another city called Madiana on the Inland 26 miles from the Bay, which corresponds to what Josephus called Madian, Eusebius ‘Madiam and the Muslim writers’ median (IDB, III, 375; EI2 [Fr.], V, 1145).